Friday, May 31, 2019

Essay --

Country DetailsRepublic of India is situated in South Asia it is at the 7th position in military man by the area. The population as per 2011 census is approx. 1.2 billion, which is the 2nd largest economy in the world after the China in terms of population. India is the democracy country. From the oldest term India is the famous for its civilization and its culture. There are so many different types of people are lived together. The main are Hindu, Muslim, Shikh, Christian. The currency of India is Indian Rupee i.e. INR. As per 2013, India is the third largest economy by purchasing power parity and the 11th largest by nominal gross domestic product. The per capita income of India is approx. $1414 which is estimated in 2013. There are amount of money 28 states and 7 union territories in India. States has its different parliament while the union territory is directly under the President of India. All the states have its separate in different districts to a fault. The official language of India is Hindi and English, because there are more than 500 languages are there in India. The capital of India is Delhi. Mr. Pranab Mukherjee is the 13th and up-to-date President of India. The national anthem of India is Jana Gana Mana and the Motto is Satyameva Jayate. There are so many industries in India. India is a developing country. The GDP of the country is 6.1% as per 2011-12. The India is the windy growing economy in the world. There are 486.6 million workers in the country, so as per labor force India is the second largest country in the world as per 2011. India has the worlds third largest military which is commanded by the President of India. It includes the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force. The National Stock of supersede and the Bomba... ...13. India is the most attractive nation in the world in terms of enthronization. In 2013-14 the India is expected fiscal deficit at 3.4% from the previous year 2012-13. India is also good in expo rt of the product. It has done export worth US$ 303 billion in FY 2012-13. The expected offshoot in export is about US$ 325 billion in this FY. Indias industrial economy is gathering momentum on the back of improved output of eight core sector industries coal, crude oil, refining, steel, cement, earthy gas, fertilizers and electricity which, at 8 per cent in September 2013, rose at its fastest pace in a year. The US$ 1.2 trillion investment planned in the infrastructure sector will go a long way in boosting export performance of Indian companies and the Indian growth story, according to Mr. Anand Sharma, Union Minister for Commerce and Industry, Government of India.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Susan Glaspells Trifles - The Sweetness of Revenge :: Trifles Essays

Sweetness of Revenge Susan Glaspells play, Trifles, seems to describe the ultimate womens suffrage study. No longitudinal will men have an upper hand against women after reading this story. Cleverness will be the key to retaining power from the men in this story. The oneness thing that woman are criticized for, the idea that women tend to look at the little picture instead of the whole picture, will be there path to victory. Two stories of revenge are told in this story, the revenge of suppression and revenge of being portrayed as unsophisticated, unintelligent women. First we have the story of Mrs. Wright and the struggles with her husband, John. Married women throughout history have been portrayed and played the role as being inferior to the husband in marriage. This seems to be the case with Mrs. Wright. even though Johns public image was somewhat respectable, it was obvious that behind close doors the story was different. There is evidence of abuse in this marriage. Fi rst, the discovery of the broken door leads me to conclude that John was very physical and anguished. Second, it is assumed that Mrs. Wrights husband had broke her canarys neck. The canary, which of course had to be caged, was represented as the old Minnie foster herself. The canary is a beautiful, free spirited raspberry bush that had a sweet voice, as Minnie had at one time. This was the end of the line and Minnie Foster was about to be reborn. She would stand up for all those abused and suppressed house wives across the world and makes the first final decision she had ever been allowed to make. The birds cage was her jail. The birds death was her freedom for the fate of the bird was the fate of her husband. John was discovered with a rope tied nearly his neck, the freedom of a women who could no longer be held down. This was the first implementation of womens power in the story. The women at Mrs. Wrights home played an definitive role in the story as well. The professional de tectives were busy about the house finding clues to indict Mrs. Wright in the murder case. They ridiculed the women in the house by putting them in their place as typical ladies, so worried about small things and useless ordeals. Mrs. Hale noted the stitches in the quilt to be erratically stitched as if something were wrong.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Harry S. Truman :: essays research papers

Biography During his few weeks as Vice President, Harry S Truman scarcely apothegm President Roosevelt, and received no briefing on the development of the atomic bomb or the unfolding difficulties with Soviet Russia. Suddenly these and a host of separate wartime problems became Trumans to solve when, on April 12, 1945, he became President. He told reporters, "I felt like the moon, the stars, and all the planets had fallen on me." Truman was born in Lamar, Missouri, in 1884. He grew up in Independence, and for 12 years prospered as a Missouri farmer. He went to France during World War I as a captain in the depicted object Artillery. Returning, he married Elizabeth Virginia Wallace, and opened a haberdashery in Kansas City. Active in the Democratic Party, Truman was elected a judge of the Jackson County Court (an administrative position) in 1922. He became a Senator in 1934. During World War II he headed the Senate war investigating committee, checking into waste and corrup tion and saving perhaps as much as 15 billion dollars. As President, Truman made some of the close to crucial decisions in history. Soon after V-E Day, the war against Japan had reached its nett stage. An urgent plea to Japan to surrender was rejected. Truman, after consultations with his advisers, ordered atomic bombs dropped on cities devoted to war work. Two were Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japanese surrender quickly followed. In June 1945 Truman witnessed the signing of the charter of the United Nations, hopefully established to preserve peace. Thus far, he had followed his predecessors policies, but he soon developed his suffer. He presented to Congress a 21-point computer programme, proposing the expansion of Social Security, a full-employment program, a permanent Fair Employment Practices Act, and public housing and slum clearance. The program, Truman wrote, "symbolizes for me my assumption of the office of President in my own right." It became known as the Fair Deal. Dangers and crises marked the foreign scene as Truman campaigned successfully in 1948. In foreign affairs he was already providing his most effective leadership. In 1947 as the Soviet Union pressured Turkey and, through guerrillas, threatened to take over Greece, he asked Congress to aid the two countries, enunciating the program that bears his name--the Truman Doctrine. The Marshall Plan, named for his Secretary of State, stimulated spectacular economic recovery in war-torn western Europe. When the Russians blockaded the western sectors of Berlin in 1948, Truman created a massive face lifting to supply Berliners until the Russians backed down.

This is gay :: essays research papers

nstalling oer Windows 2000 releases-------------------------------------Typical and full setations be not currently available for Windows 2000. meshing adventurer 6 will install a minimal set of files onto your system. This includes the profit venturer 6 Web browser and scripting support.Uninstalling net income explorer 6 sooner upgrading to Windows 2000----------------------------------------------------------------Windows 2000 contains an sooner adaption of mesh Explorer components than Internet Explorer 6. out front upgrading from Windows 98, Windows 98 Second var., or Windows NT to Windows 2000, it is recommended that users uninstall Internet Explorer 6. During the upgrade, you may receive the following content "This program may not run correctly because of new-fangled features in Internet Explorer 4.0. You may need to obtain an updated version of this program." Although this message is misleading, disport click the Details button for a more veracious descr iption of the problem.Downloading Internet Explorer 6 utilise a non-Microsoft download manager------------------------------------------------------------------During the Internet Explorer 6 installation, setup must download components from the Internet. Users who are utilizing non-Microsoft download managers (for example, Netzip, GetRight, or RealAudios Download Demon) will intercept download requests. This will cause Setup to abort. To prevent this from occurring, disable non-Microsoft download managers before running Setup. mellowed encryption support for Internet Explorer 6--------------------------------------------------------------High encryption components are include for Windows 98, Windows 98 Second Edition, and Windows NT 4.0 Service Pack 6a. Windows Millennium Edition contains high encryption by default. To obtain high encryption support for Windows 2000, please natter Windows Update at http//www.windowsupdate.microsoft.com/ or http//www.microsoft.com/windows2000/down loads/recommended/encryption/default.asp.Installing or upgrading the Windows Desktop Update (Windows NT 4.0 only)-------------------------------------------------------------If you have already installed Internet Explorer 6 and would like to install the Windows Desktop Update, you must install Internet Explorer 4.01 SP2 before installing the upgrade.>>>To install Windows Desktop Update1. Uninstall Internet Explorer 6 by using the procedure described later in this document.2. If Internet Explorer 4.01 SP2 is not already installed on your computer, install it.3. Install the Windows Desktop Update by clicking add together/Remove Programs in Control Panel.4. Reinstall Internet Explorer 6.Previous version unavailable after uninstalling Internet Explorer 6-------------------------------------------------------------------After uninstalling Internet Explorer 6, it is not possible to remove the browser that was installed preliminary to Internet Explorer 6.Installing over localized W indows 98 Arabic and Hebrew releases---------------------------------------------------------------Windows 98 Arabic and Hebrew versions require the corresponding localized version of Internet Explorer 6. It is not possible to install the English version of Internet Explorer over the Hebrew andArabic localized versions of Windows 98. Installing Internet Explorer 6 with Norton Protected Recycle Bin This is gay essays research papers nstalling over Windows 2000 releases-------------------------------------Typical and full installations are not currently available for Windows 2000. Internet Explorer 6 will install a minimal set of files onto your system. This includes the Internet Explorer 6 Web browser and scripting support.Uninstalling Internet Explorer 6 before upgrading to Windows 2000----------------------------------------------------------------Windows 2000 contains an earlier version of Internet Explorer components than Internet Explorer 6. Before upgrading from Windows 98, Windows 98 Second Edition, or Windows NT to Windows 2000, it is recommended that users uninstall Internet Explorer 6. During the upgrade, you may receive the following message "This program may not run correctly because of new features in Internet Explorer 4.0. You may need to obtain an updated version of this program." Although this message is misleading, please click the Details button for a moreaccurate description of the problem.Downloading Internet Explorer 6 using a non-Microsoft download manager------------------------------------------------------------------During the Internet Explorer 6 installation, Setup must download components from the Internet. Users who are utilizing non-Microsoft download managers (for example, Netzip, GetRight, or RealAudios Download Demon) will intercept download requests. This will cause Setup to abort. To prevent this from occurring, disable non-Microsoft download managers before running Setup.High encryption support for Internet Explore r 6--------------------------------------------------------------High encryption components are included for Windows 98, Windows 98 Second Edition, and Windows NT 4.0 Service Pack 6a. Windows Millennium Edition contains high encryption by default. To obtain high encryption support for Windows 2000, please visit Windows Update at http//www.windowsupdate.microsoft.com/ or http//www.microsoft.com/windows2000/downloads/recommended/encryption/default.asp.Installing or upgrading the Windows Desktop Update (Windows NT 4.0 only)-------------------------------------------------------------If you have already installed Internet Explorer 6 and would like to install the Windows Desktop Update, you must install Internet Explorer 4.01 SP2 before installing the upgrade.>>>To install Windows Desktop Update1. Uninstall Internet Explorer 6 by using the procedure described later in this document.2. If Internet Explorer 4.01 SP2 is not already installed on your computer, install it.3. Install the Windows Desktop Update by clicking Add/Remove Programs in Control Panel.4. Reinstall Internet Explorer 6.Previous version unavailable after uninstalling Internet Explorer 6-------------------------------------------------------------------After uninstalling Internet Explorer 6, it is not possible to remove the browser that was installed prior to Internet Explorer 6.Installing over localized Windows 98 Arabic and Hebrew releases---------------------------------------------------------------Windows 98 Arabic and Hebrew versions require the corresponding localized version of Internet Explorer 6. It is not possible to install the English version of Internet Explorer over the Hebrew andArabic localized versions of Windows 98. Installing Internet Explorer 6 with Norton Protected Recycle Bin

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

alcohol :: essays research papers

Alcohol is a compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, which keister be combined together in umpteen different ways. There are more different kinds of intoxi fagt, the commonest being called ethyl alcohol. Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is present in varying amounts in beers and wines, and in distilled liquors such as whiskey, gin, and rum. Alcohol consumption touches some million people around the world. The use of alcohol depends on an individuals social, cultural, or religious background. One of the earliest mentions of wine making is from an Egyptian papyrus dated 3,500 BC. However, alcohol drinking is thought to go back almost as far as the human race does. Alcohol has been fundamental to social, religious and personal use all over the world throughout history. When an individual consumes alcohol there are both short term and yearn term effects. The most immediate effect of alcohol consumption is change of mood. Even though alcohol is makes you feel excitement, happiness and relaxation it is in incident a depressant. Alcohol in the bloodstream causes impairment of motor co-ordination and slows down rudimentary nervous system activity, which gives the impression of clumsiness and can raceway to alcohol related accidents. The more intoxicated a person has slurred speech, blurred vision and the loss of balance. Furthermore it switches off the part of the brain that controls judgment which can result in greater find taking. However drinking in very large quantities can damage vital bodily functions which may pass to coma, or even death.Alcohol also impairs the memory of an intoxicated person which reduces the drinkers ability to remember information that he or she has conditioned before going out for drinks. In addition, the attention span of the drinker radically decreases for periods of up to forty-eight hours after drinking. This may affect the academic carrying into action of a student and his or her ability to study in class. Furthermore consump tion of alcohol can damage the functioning of the immune system. Hence, this will ontogenesis the chance of getting colds and other diseases. Drinking for retentive periods of time can have harmful effects on the body, alcohol is in situation a poisonous substance, having it circulating in the body will contribute to severe intestinal dysfunction. However, alcohol alone is not the sole cause of these problems it simply subjoins the seek of developing certain diseases/dysfunction such asThere is no denying the fact that, Alcohol use is in excess in our culture.alcohol essays explore papers Alcohol is a compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, which can be combined together in some different ways. There are many different kinds of alcohol, the commonest being called ethyl alcohol. Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is present in varying amounts in beers and wines, and in distilled liquors such as whiskey, gin, and rum. Alcohol consumption touches many million people around the world . The use of alcohol depends on an individuals social, cultural, or religious background. One of the earliest mentions of wine making is from an Egyptian papyrus dated 3,500 BC. However, alcohol drinking is thought to go back almost as far as the human race does. Alcohol has been central to social, religious and personal use all over the world throughout history. When an individual consumes alcohol there are both short term and long term effects. The most immediate effect of alcohol consumption is change of mood. Even though alcohol is makes you feel excitement, happiness and relaxation it is in fact a depressant. Alcohol in the bloodstream causes impairment of motor co-ordination and slows down central nervous system activity, which gives the impression of clumsiness and can lead to alcohol related accidents. The more intoxicated a person has slurred speech, blurred vision and the loss of balance. Furthermore it switches off the part of the brain that controls judgment which can re sult in greater risk taking. However drinking in very large quantities can damage vital bodily functions which may lead to coma, or even death.Alcohol also impairs the memory of an intoxicated person which reduces the drinkers ability to remember information that he or she has knowledgeable before going out for drinks. In addition, the attention span of the drinker radically decreases for periods of up to forty-eight hours after drinking. This may affect the academic cognitive operation of a student and his or her ability to study in class. Furthermore consumption of alcohol can damage the functioning of the immune system. Hence, this will increase the chance of getting colds and other diseases. Drinking for long periods of time can have harmful effects on the body, alcohol is in fact a poisonous substance, having it circulating in the body will contribute to severe intestinal dysfunction. However, alcohol alone is not the sole cause of these problems it simply increases the risk of developing certain diseases/dysfunction such asThere is no denying the fact that, Alcohol use is in excess in our culture.

alcohol :: essays research papers

inebriant is a compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, which basis be combined together in many different ways. thither are many different kinds of alcohol, the commonest being called ethyl alcohol. Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is present in varying amounts in beers and fuddles, and in distilled liquors such as whiskey, gin, and rum. intoxi plundert consumption touches many million people around the world. The use of alcohol depends on an individuals social, cultural, or religious background. One of the earliest mentions of drink making is from an Egyptian papyrus dated 3,500 BC. However, alcohol drinking is thought to go back almost as far as the human aftermath does. Alcohol has been central to social, religious and personal use all over the world throughout history. When an individual consumes alcohol there are both bruskly term and long term effects. The most immediate effect of alcohol consumption is change of mood. Even though alcohol is makes you feel excitement, happi ness and sleep it is in fact a depressant. Alcohol in the bloodstream b washings impairment of motor co-ordination and slows down central nervous system activity, which gives the impression of clumsiness and can lead to alcohol related accidents. The more intoxicated a person has slurred speech, blurred vision and the loss of balance. Furthermore it switches off the part of the capitulum that controls judgment which can result in greater risk taking. However drinking in very large quantities can damage vital corporeal functions which may lead to coma, or even death.Alcohol also impairs the memory of an intoxicated person which reduces the drinkers ability to remember information that he or she has learned before going out for drinks. In addition, the attention span of the drinker radically decreases for periods of up to forty-eight hours after drinking. This may print the academic performance of a student and his or her ability to study in class. Furthermore consumption of alcoh ol can damage the functioning of the resistive system. Hence, this will increase the chance of getting colds and other diseases. Drinking for long periods of time can have harmful effects on the body, alcohol is in fact a poisonous substance, having it circulating in the body will contribute to severe intestinal dysfunction. However, alcohol alone is not the sole form of these problems it simply increases the risk of developing certain diseases/dysfunction such as in that respect is no denying the fact that, Alcohol use is in excess in our culture.alcohol essays research papers Alcohol is a compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, which can be combined together in many different ways. There are many different kinds of alcohol, the commonest being called ethyl alcohol. Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is present in varying amounts in beers and wines, and in distilled liquors such as whiskey, gin, and rum. Alcohol consumption touches many million people around the world. The use of alc ohol depends on an individuals social, cultural, or religious background. One of the earliest mentions of wine making is from an Egyptian papyrus dated 3,500 BC. However, alcohol drinking is thought to go back almost as far as the human race does. Alcohol has been central to social, religious and personal use all over the world throughout history. When an individual consumes alcohol there are both short term and long term effects. The most immediate effect of alcohol consumption is change of mood. Even though alcohol is makes you feel excitement, happiness and slackening it is in fact a depressant. Alcohol in the bloodstream causes impairment of motor co-ordination and slows down central nervous system activity, which gives the impression of clumsiness and can lead to alcohol related accidents. The more intoxicated a person has slurred speech, blurred vision and the loss of balance. Furthermore it switches off the part of the thought that controls judgment which can result in grea ter risk taking. However drinking in very large quantities can damage vital natural functions which may lead to coma, or even death.Alcohol also impairs the memory of an intoxicated person which reduces the drinkers ability to remember information that he or she has learned before going out for drinks. In addition, the attention span of the drinker radically decreases for periods of up to forty-eight hours after drinking. This may doctor the academic performance of a student and his or her ability to study in class. Furthermore consumption of alcohol can damage the functioning of the insubordinate system. Hence, this will increase the chance of getting colds and other diseases. Drinking for long periods of time can have harmful effects on the body, alcohol is in fact a poisonous substance, having it circulating in the body will contribute to severe intestinal dysfunction. However, alcohol alone is not the sole cause of these problems it simply increases the risk of developing cer tain diseases/dysfunction such asThere is no denying the fact that, Alcohol use is in excess in our culture.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Monopolistic Competition

INTRODUCTION Pure monopoly and meliorate tilt argon two extreme cases of securities industry construction. In reality, at that place argon commercialises having large take of defecaters competing with some(prenominal)ly opposite in order to sell their harvest-time in the market. Thus, there is monopoly on the one hand and sodding(a) challenger, on the other hand. Such a mixture of monopoly and utter(a) opposition is called non matched contention. It is a case of imperfect competitor. The model of monopolistic competition describes a commonmarket structurein which stanchs assimilate some competitors, except apiece one sells a slightly different product.monopolistic competition as a market structure was waneoff identified in the 1930s by Ameri screw economistEd contendd Chamberlin, and English economistJoan Robinson. Many small businesses run under conditions of monopolistic competition, including independently possess and operated high-street stores and r estaurants. In the case of restaurants, distributively one offers something different and possesses an element of queerness, but all be essentially competing for the said(prenominal) customers. The aim of the given work is the pack of monopolistic competition. The paper consists of introduction, embody, conclusion and bibliography.In the introduction the aim of the work is defined and the structure of the paper is described. The body gives the definition of monopolistic competition, studies it main characteristics and comments on the main advantages and disadvantages of monopolistic competition. Conclusion sums up the turn outs of the say. Bibliography comprises the list of references utilize when carrying out the work. MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION Monopolistic competitionis a type ofimperfect competition much(prenominal) that competing producers sell products that ardifferentiatedfrom one a nonher as good but non perfectsubstitutes, such as from differentiateing, quality, o r location.In monopolistic competition, a smashed takes the determines charged by its rivals as given and ignores the advert of its own outlays on the equipment casualtys of other unanimouss. In a monopolistically agonistical market, firms flock be break likemonopoliesin theshort disembowel, including by using market agency to generate winnings. In the dour run, however, other firms defer the market and the benefits of specialism decrease with competition the market becomes more like a short militantone where firms coffin nailnot gain stinting profit.In practice, however, if consumer rationality/innovativeness is low and heuristics atomic number 18 preferred,monopolistic competition suffer fall intonatural monopoly, even in the complete absence of g e rattlingwherenment intervention. In the presence of coercive government, monopolistic competition impart fall intogovernment-granted monopoly. Unlike perfect competition, the firm maintains sp atomic number 18 capacity. Models of monopolistic competition are often used to model industries. Examples of industries with market structures similar to monopolistic competition includerestaurants,cereal,clothing,shoes, and service industries in large cities.The founding father of the theory of monopolistic competition isEdward battle of Hastings Chamberlin, who wrote a pioneering book on the outcomeTheory of Monopolistic Competition(1933). Joan Robinsonpublished a bookThe Economics of Imperfect Competitionwith a comparable with(predicate) theme of distinguishing perfect from imperfect competition. Monopolistically agonistical markets have the pursuit characteristics * There are umteen producers and umteen an(prenominal) consumers in the market, and no business has total master over the market price. * Consumers perceive that there are non-price differences among the competitors products. There are fewbarriers to entryand guide. * Producers have a peak of control over price. The dogged-run chara cteristics of a monopolistically competitive market are al just about the same as a perfectly competitive market. Two differences amidst the two are that monopolistic competition produces heterogeneous products and that monopolistic competition involves a great deal of non-price competition, which is based on subtle product differentiation. A firm making profits in the short run give nonetheless(prenominal) onlybreak evenin the long run because aim will decrease and number total personify will increase.This intend in the long run, a monopolistically competitive firm will relieve oneself zeroeconomic profit. This illustrates the amount of fascinate the firm has over the market because of brand loyalty, it can raise its prices without losing all of its customers. This pith that an individual firms crave wriggle is downs cant, in contrast to perfect competition, which has aperfectly livedemand schedule. Monopolistically competitive markets exhibit the following characte ristics 1. Each firm makes independent decisions about price and output, based on its product, its market, and its be of production. . Knowledge is widely spread between participants, but it is unlikely to be perfect. For example, diners can re project all the menus available from restaurants in a town, before they make their choice. Once inside the restaurant, they can view the menu again, before ordering. However, they cannot fully appreciate the restaurant or the meal until after they have dined. 3. Theentrepreneurhas a more substantial role than in firms that are perfectly competitive because of the increased risks associated with decision making. 4.There is freedom to enter or leave the market, as there are no studybarriers to entryor button. 5. A central feature of monopolistic competition is that products are differentiated. There are quaternity main types of differentiation a. Physical product differentiation, where firms use size, design, colour, shape, per moldance, an d features to make their products different. For example, consumer electronics can easily be physically differentiated. b. Marketing differentiation, where firms try to differentiate their product by distinctive packaging and other promotional materialal techniques.For example, breakfast cereals can easily be differentiated through packaging. c. Human capital differentiation, where the firm creates differences through the attainment of its employees, the aim of training received, distinctive uniforms, and so on. d. Differentiation through distribution, including distribution via mail order or through internet shopping, such as Amazon. com, which differentiates itself from traditionalistic bookstores by selling online. 6. Firms areprice makersand are faced with a downward slopingdemand curve.Because each firm makes a unique product, it can charge a higher or lower price than its rivals. The firm can set its own price and does not have to take it from the industry as a whole, thou gh the industry price whitethorn be a guideline, or becomes a constraint. This also nub that the demand curve will slope downwards. 7. Firmsoperating under monopolistic competition unremarkablyhave to engage in publicizing. Firms are often in fierce competition with other (local anesthetic) firms offering a similar product or service, and may need to advertise on a local basis, to let customers know their differences.Common methods of advertising for these firms are through local press and radio, local cinema, posters, leaflets and special promotions. 8. Monopolistically competitive firms are assumed to beprofit maximisersbecause firms tend to be small with entrepreneurs actively regard in managing the business. 9. There are usually a large numbers of independent firms competing in the market. Product differentiation Monopolistic competition firms sell products that have real or perceived non-price differences. However, the differences are not so great as to eliminate other go ods as substitutes.Technically, the cross price elasticity of demand between goods in such a market is positive. In circumstance, the XED would be high. Monopolistic competition goods are best described as close-fitting but imperfect substitutes. The goods perform the same primary give ways but have differences in qualities such as type, style, quality, reputation, appearance, and location that tend to distinguish them from each other. For example, the basic function of motor vehicles is basically the same to give-up the ghost people and objects from point A to B in reasonable comfort and safety.Yet there are some different types of motor vehicles such as motor scooters, motor cycles, trucks, cars and SUVs and many variations even within these categories. There are many firms in each monopolistic competition product group and many firms on the side lines prepared to enter the market. A product group is a collection of similar products. The fact that there are many firms gives each MC firm the freedom to set prices without engaging in strategic decision making regarding the prices of other firms and each firms actions have a negligible impact on the market.For example, a firm could cut prices and increase sales without fear that its actions will prompt retaliatory responses from competitors. How many firms will an MC market structure support at market equilibrium? The answer depends on factors such as placed costs, economies of scale and the degree of product differentiation. For example, the higher the fixed costs, the less firms the market will support. Also the greater the degree of product differentiation the more the firm can illuminate itself from the pack the fewer firms there will be at market equilibrium.In the long run there is free entry and exit. There are numerous firms waiting to enter the market each with its own unique product or in pursuit of positive profits and any firm unable to cover its costs can leave the market without incurri ng liquidation costs. This assumption implies that there are low start up costs, no sunk costs and no exit costs. The cost of entering and exit is very low. Each monopolistic competition firm independently sets the terms of convince for its product. The firm gives no consideration to what yield its decision may have on competitors.The theory is that any action will have such a negligible effect on the boilersuit market demand that an MC firm can act without fear of prompting heightened competition. In other row each firm feels free to set prices as if it were a monopoly rather than an oligopoly. Monopolistic competition firms have some degree of market world-beater. Market power means that the firm has control over the terms and conditions of exchange. An MC firm can raise it prices without losing all its customers. The firm can also lower prices without triggering a potentially ruinous price war with competitors.The source of an MC firms market power is not barriers to entry si nce they are low. Rather, an MC firm has market power because it has relatively few competitors, those competitors do not engage in strategic decision making and the firms sells differentiated product. Market power also means that an MC firm faces a downward sloping demand curve. The demand curve is highly elastic although not flat. There are two sources of inefficiency in the MC market structure. First, at its optimum output the firm charges a price that exceeds marginal costs, the MC firm maximizes profits where MR = MC.Since the MC firms demand curve is downward sloping this means that the firm will be charging a price that exceeds marginal costs. The monopoly power possessed by an MC firm means that at its profit maximizing level of production there will be a net loss of consumer (and producer) surplus. The second source of inefficiency is the fact that MC firms operate with excess capacity. That is, the MC firms profit maximizing output is less than the output associated with tokenish clean cost. Both a PC and MC firm will operate at a point where demand or price equals average cost.For a PC firm this equilibrium condition occurs where the perfectly elastic demand curve equals minimum average cost. A MC firms demand curve is not flat but is downward sloping. Thus in the long run the demand curve will be tangent to the long run average cost curve at a point to the left of its minimum. The result is excess capacity. While monopolistically competitive firms are inefficient, it is usually the case that the costs of regulating prices for both product that is change in monopolistic competition farther exceed the benefits of such regulation.The government would have to regulate all firms that sold heterogeneous productsan impossible proposition in amarket economy. A monopolistically competitive firm might be said to be marginally inefficient because the firm produces at an output where average total cost is not a minimum. A monopolistically competitive mark et might be said to be a marginally inefficient market structure because marginal cost is less than price in the long run. Another concern of critics of monopolistic competition is that it fostersadvertisingand the creation ofbrand names.Critics contest that advertising induces customers into spending more on products because of the name associated with them rather than because of rational factors. Defenders of advertising dispute this, arguing that brand names can represent a guarantee of quality and that advertising helps centralise the cost to consumers of weighing the tradeoffs of numerous competing brands. There are unique education and information processing costs associated with selecting a brand in a monopolistically competitive environment. In a monopoly market, the consumer is faced with a single brand, making information gathering relatively inexpensive.In a perfectly competitive industry, the consumer is faced with many brands, but because the brands are virtually ide ntical information gathering is also relatively inexpensive. In a monopolistically competitive market, the consumer must collect and process information on a large number of different brands to be able to select the best of them. In many cases, the cost of gathering information prerequisite to selecting the best brand can exceed the benefit of consuming the best brand instead of a randomly selected brand.Evidence suggests that consumers use information obtained from advertising not only to assess the single brand advertised, but also to approximate the possible existence of brands that the consumer has, heretofore, not observed, as well as to infer consumer satisfaction with brands similar to the advertised brand The advantages of monopolistic competition Monopolistic competition can bring the following advantages 1. There are no significantbarriers to entry therefore markets are relativelycontestable. 2. Differentiation creates diversity, choice and expediency.For example, a ty pical high street in any town will have a number of different restaurants from which to choose. 3. The market is more efficient than monopoly but less efficient than perfect competition less allocatively and less productively efficient. However, they may be dynamically efficient, innovative in terms of new production processes or new products. For example, retailers often evermore have to develop new slipway to attract and retain local custom. The disadvantages of monopolistic competitionThere are several potential disadvantages associated with monopolistic competition, including 1. many differentiation does not create utility but generates unnecessary waste, such as excess packaging. Advertising may also be considered wasteful, though most is informative rather than persuasive. 2. As the plot illustrates, assuming profit maximisation, there is allocative inefficiency in both the long and short run. This isbecause price is above marginal cost in both cases. In the long run the firm is less allocatively inefficient, but it is still inefficient. . There is a tendency for excess capacity because firms can never fully exploit their fixed factors because mass production is difficult. This means they areproductively inefficientin both the long and short run. However, this is may be outweighed by the advantages of diversity and choice. As an economic model of competition, monopolistic competition is more realistic than perfect competition many familiar and general markets have many of the characteristics of this model. Conclusion Our study gives us an opportunity to come to the following conclusion.Monopolistic competition is amarket structurein which several or manysellerseach produce similar, butslightlydifferentiatedproducts. Each producercan set itspriceand quantity without affecting the grocery as a whole. Monopolistic competition differs from perfect competition in that production does not take place at the lowest possible cost. Because of this, firms a re left with excess production capacity. It is a type of competition within an industry where * All firms produce similar yet not perfectly synonymous products. All firms are able to enter the industry if the profits are attractive. * All firms are profit maximizers. * All firms have some market power, which means none are price takers. Monopolistic competition has certain features, one of which is that there are large number of sellers producing differentiated products. So, competition among them is very keen. Since number of sellers is large, each seller produces a very small part of market supply. So no seller is in a position to control price of product. Every firm is limited in its size.Product differentiation is one of the most important features of monopolistic competition. In perfect competition, products are homogeneous in nature. On the contrary, here, every producer tries to cargo area his product dissimilar than his rivals product in order to maintain his separate iden tity. This boosts up the competition in market. So, every firm acquires some monopoly power. The feature of freedom of entry and exit leads to stiff competition in market. Free entry into the market enables new firms to come with close substitutes.Free entry or exit maintains normal profit in the market for a longer span of time. Selling cost is another unique feature of monopolistic competition. In such type of market, due to product differentiation, every firm has to incur some additional expenditure in the form of selling cost. This cost includes sales promotion expenses, advertisement expenses, salaries of marketing staff, etc. And the last feature of monopolistic competition is that a firm is facing downward sloping demand curve i. e. elastic demand curve.It means one can sell more at lower price and vice versa. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Ayers R. and Collinge R. , Microeconomics, Pearson, 2003 2. J. Gans, S. King, N. Gregory Mankiw, Principles of Economics, Thomson Learning, 2003 3. Hirs chey, M, managerial Economics Rev. Ed, Dryden, 2000 4. http//www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/390037/monopolistic-competition 5. http//www. investopedia. com/terms/m/monopolisticmarket. asp 6. http//kalyan-city. blogspot. com/2010/11/monopolistic-competition-meaning. htmlMonopolistic CompetitionINTRODUCTION Pure monopoly and perfect competition are two extreme cases of market structure. In reality, there are markets having large number of producers competing with each other in order to sell their product in the market. Thus, there is monopoly on the one hand and perfect competition, on the other hand. Such a mixture of monopoly and perfect competition is called monopolistic competition. It is a case of imperfect competition. The model of monopolistic competition describes a commonmarket structurein which firms have many competitors, but each one sells a slightly different product.Monopolistic competition as a market structure was first identified in the 1930s by American economi stEdward Chamberlin, and English economistJoan Robinson. Many small businesses operate under conditions of monopolistic competition, including independently owned and operated high-street stores and restaurants. In the case of restaurants, each one offers something different and possesses an element of uniqueness, but all are essentially competing for the same customers. The aim of the given work is the study of monopolistic competition. The paper consists of introduction, body, conclusion and bibliography.In the introduction the aim of the work is defined and the structure of the paper is described. The body gives the definition of monopolistic competition, studies it main characteristics and comments on the main advantages and disadvantages of monopolistic competition. Conclusion sums up the results of the study. Bibliography comprises the list of references used when carrying out the work. MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION Monopolistic competitionis a type ofimperfect competitionsuch that competing producers sell products that aredifferentiatedfrom one another as good but not perfectsubstitutes, such as from branding, quality, or location.In monopolistic competition, a firm takes the prices charged by its rivals as given and ignores the impact of its own prices on the prices of other firms. In a monopolistically competitive market, firms can behave likemonopoliesin theshort run, including by using market power to generate profit. In thelong run, however, other firms enter the market and the benefits of differentiation decrease with competition the market becomes more like aperfectly competitiveone where firms cannot gain economic profit.In practice, however, if consumer rationality/innovativeness is low and heuristics are preferred,monopolistic competitioncan fall intonatural monopoly, even in the complete absence of government intervention. In the presence of coercive government, monopolistic competition will fall intogovernment-granted monopoly. Unlike perfect com petition, the firm maintains spare capacity. Models of monopolistic competition are often used to model industries. Examples of industries with market structures similar to monopolistic competition includerestaurants,cereal,clothing,shoes, and service industries in large cities.The founding father of the theory of monopolistic competition isEdward Hastings Chamberlin, who wrote a pioneering book on the subjectTheory of Monopolistic Competition(1933). Joan Robinsonpublished a bookThe Economics of Imperfect Competitionwith a comparable theme of distinguishing perfect from imperfect competition. Monopolistically competitive markets have the following characteristics * There are many producers and many consumers in the market, and no business has total control over the market price. * Consumers perceive that there are non-price differences among the competitors products. There are fewbarriers to entryand exit. * Producers have a degree of control over price. The semipermanent character istics of a monopolistically competitive market are almost the same as a perfectly competitive market. Two differences between the two are that monopolistic competition produces heterogeneous products and that monopolistic competition involves a great deal of non-price competition, which is based on subtle product differentiation. A firm making profits in the short run will nonetheless onlybreak evenin the long run because demand will decrease and average total cost will increase.This means in the long run, a monopolistically competitive firm will make zeroeconomic profit. This illustrates the amount of influence the firm has over the market because of brand loyalty, it can raise its prices without losing all of its customers. This means that an individual firms demand curve is downward sloping, in contrast to perfect competition, which has aperfectly elasticdemand schedule. Monopolistically competitive markets exhibit the following characteristics 1. Each firm makes independent dec isions about price and output, based on its product, its market, and itscosts of production. . Knowledge is widely spread between participants, but it is unlikely to be perfect. For example, diners can review all the menus available from restaurants in a town, before they make their choice. Once inside the restaurant, they can view the menu again, before ordering. However, they cannot fully appreciate the restaurant or the meal until after they have dined. 3. Theentrepreneurhas a more significant role than in firms that are perfectly competitive because of the increased risks associated with decision making. 4.There is freedom to enter or leave the market, as there are no majorbarriers to entryor exit. 5. A central feature of monopolistic competition is that products are differentiated. There are four main types of differentiation a. Physical product differentiation, where firms use size, design, colour, shape, performance, and features to make their products different. For example, consumer electronics can easily be physically differentiated. b. Marketing differentiation, where firms try to differentiate their product by distinctive packaging and other promotional techniques.For example, breakfast cereals can easily be differentiated through packaging. c. Human capital differentiation, where the firm creates differences through the skill of its employees, the level of training received, distinctive uniforms, and so on. d. Differentiation through distribution, including distribution via mail order or through internet shopping, such as Amazon. com, which differentiates itself from traditional bookstores by selling online. 6. Firms areprice makersand are faced with a downward slopingdemand curve.Because each firm makes a unique product, it can charge a higher or lower price than its rivals. The firm can set its own price and does not have to take it from the industry as a whole, though the industry price may be a guideline, or becomes a constraint. This also mea ns that the demand curve will slope downwards. 7. Firmsoperating under monopolistic competition usuallyhave to engage in advertising. Firms are often in fierce competition with other (local) firms offering a similar product or service, and may need to advertise on a local basis, to let customers know their differences.Common methods of advertising for these firms are through local press and radio, local cinema, posters, leaflets and special promotions. 8. Monopolistically competitive firms are assumed to beprofit maximisersbecause firms tend to be small with entrepreneurs actively involved in managing the business. 9. There are usually a large numbers of independent firms competing in the market. Product differentiation Monopolistic competition firms sell products that have real or perceived non-price differences. However, the differences are not so great as to eliminate other goods as substitutes.Technically, the cross price elasticity of demand between goods in such a market is po sitive. In fact, the XED would be high. Monopolistic competition goods are best described as close but imperfect substitutes. The goods perform the same basic functions but have differences in qualities such as type, style, quality, reputation, appearance, and location that tend to distinguish them from each other. For example, the basic function of motor vehicles is basically the same to move people and objects from point A to B in reasonable comfort and safety.Yet there are many different types of motor vehicles such as motor scooters, motor cycles, trucks, cars and SUVs and many variations even within these categories. There are many firms in each monopolistic competition product group and many firms on the side lines prepared to enter the market. A product group is a collection of similar products. The fact that there are many firms gives each MC firm the freedom to set prices without engaging in strategic decision making regarding the prices of other firms and each firms actio ns have a negligible impact on the market.For example, a firm could cut prices and increase sales without fear that its actions will prompt retaliatory responses from competitors. How many firms will an MC market structure support at market equilibrium? The answer depends on factors such as fixed costs, economies of scale and the degree of product differentiation. For example, the higher the fixed costs, the fewer firms the market will support. Also the greater the degree of product differentiation the more the firm can separate itself from the pack the fewer firms there will be at market equilibrium.In the long run there is free entry and exit. There are numerous firms waiting to enter the market each with its own unique product or in pursuit of positive profits and any firm unable to cover its costs can leave the market without incurring liquidation costs. This assumption implies that there are low start up costs, no sunk costs and no exit costs. The cost of entering and exit is very low. Each monopolistic competition firm independently sets the terms of exchange for its product. The firm gives no consideration to what effect its decision may have on competitors.The theory is that any action will have such a negligible effect on the overall market demand that an MC firm can act without fear of prompting heightened competition. In other words each firm feels free to set prices as if it were a monopoly rather than an oligopoly. Monopolistic competition firms have some degree of market power. Market power means that the firm has control over the terms and conditions of exchange. An MC firm can raise it prices without losing all its customers. The firm can also lower prices without triggering a potentially ruinous price war with competitors.The source of an MC firms market power is not barriers to entry since they are low. Rather, an MC firm has market power because it has relatively few competitors, those competitors do not engage in strategic decision making and the firms sells differentiated product. Market power also means that an MC firm faces a downward sloping demand curve. The demand curve is highly elastic although not flat. There are two sources of inefficiency in the MC market structure. First, at its optimum output the firm charges a price that exceeds marginal costs, the MC firm maximizes profits where MR = MC.Since the MC firms demand curve is downward sloping this means that the firm will be charging a price that exceeds marginal costs. The monopoly power possessed by an MC firm means that at its profit maximizing level of production there will be a net loss of consumer (and producer) surplus. The second source of inefficiency is the fact that MC firms operate with excess capacity. That is, the MC firms profit maximizing output is less than the output associated with minimum average cost. Both a PC and MC firm will operate at a point where demand or price equals average cost.For a PC firm this equilibrium condition occurs where the perfectly elastic demand curve equals minimum average cost. A MC firms demand curve is not flat but is downward sloping. Thus in the long run the demand curve will be tangent to the long run average cost curve at a point to the left of its minimum. The result is excess capacity. While monopolistically competitive firms are inefficient, it is usually the case that the costs of regulating prices for every product that is sold in monopolistic competition far exceed the benefits of such regulation.The government would have to regulate all firms that sold heterogeneous productsan impossible proposition in amarket economy. A monopolistically competitive firm might be said to be marginally inefficient because the firm produces at an output where average total cost is not a minimum. A monopolistically competitive market might be said to be a marginally inefficient market structure because marginal cost is less than price in the long run. Another concern of critics of monopolistic competition is that it fostersadvertisingand the creation ofbrand names.Critics argue that advertising induces customers into spending more on products because of the name associated with them rather than because of rational factors. Defenders of advertising dispute this, arguing that brand names can represent a guarantee of quality and that advertising helps reduce the cost to consumers of weighing the tradeoffs of numerous competing brands. There are unique information and information processing costs associated with selecting a brand in a monopolistically competitive environment. In a monopoly market, the consumer is faced with a single brand, making information gathering relatively inexpensive.In a perfectly competitive industry, the consumer is faced with many brands, but because the brands are virtually identical information gathering is also relatively inexpensive. In a monopolistically competitive market, the consumer must collect and process information on a large number of different brands to be able to select the best of them. In many cases, the cost of gathering information necessary to selecting the best brand can exceed the benefit of consuming the best brand instead of a randomly selected brand.Evidence suggests that consumers use information obtained from advertising not only to assess the single brand advertised, but also to infer the possible existence of brands that the consumer has, heretofore, not observed, as well as to infer consumer satisfaction with brands similar to the advertised brand The advantages of monopolistic competition Monopolistic competition can bring the following advantages 1. There are no significantbarriers to entry therefore markets are relativelycontestable. 2. Differentiation creates diversity, choice and utility.For example, a typical high street in any town will have a number of different restaurants from which to choose. 3. The market is more efficient than monopoly but less efficient than perfect competition le ss allocatively and less productively efficient. However, they may be dynamically efficient, innovative in terms of new production processes or new products. For example, retailers often constantly have to develop new ways to attract and retain local custom. The disadvantages of monopolistic competitionThere are several potential disadvantages associated with monopolistic competition, including 1. Some differentiation does not create utility but generates unnecessary waste, such as excess packaging. Advertising may also be considered wasteful, though most is informative rather than persuasive. 2. As the diagram illustrates, assuming profit maximisation, there is allocative inefficiency in both the long and short run. This isbecause price is above marginal cost in both cases. In the long run the firm is less allocatively inefficient, but it is still inefficient. . There is a tendency for excess capacity because firms can never fully exploit their fixed factors because mass production is difficult. This means they areproductively inefficientin both the long and short run. However, this is may be outweighed by the advantages of diversity and choice. As an economic model of competition, monopolistic competition is more realistic than perfect competition many familiar and commonplace markets have many of the characteristics of this model. Conclusion Our study gives us an opportunity to come to the following conclusion.Monopolistic competition is amarket structurein which several or manysellerseach produce similar, butslightlydifferentiatedproducts. Each producercan set itspriceand quantity without affecting the marketplace as a whole. Monopolistic competition differs from perfect competition in that production does not take place at the lowest possible cost. Because of this, firms are left with excess production capacity. It is a type of competition within an industry where * All firms produce similar yet not perfectly substitutable products. All firms are able to enter the industry if the profits are attractive. * All firms are profit maximizers. * All firms have some market power, which means none are price takers. Monopolistic competition has certain features, one of which is that there are large number of sellers producing differentiated products. So, competition among them is very keen. Since number of sellers is large, each seller produces a very small part of market supply. So no seller is in a position to control price of product. Every firm is limited in its size.Product differentiation is one of the most important features of monopolistic competition. In perfect competition, products are homogeneous in nature. On the contrary, here, every producer tries to keep his product dissimilar than his rivals product in order to maintain his separate identity. This boosts up the competition in market. So, every firm acquires some monopoly power. The feature of freedom of entry and exit leads to stiff competition in market. Free entry into th e market enables new firms to come with close substitutes.Free entry or exit maintains normal profit in the market for a longer span of time. Selling cost is another unique feature of monopolistic competition. In such type of market, due to product differentiation, every firm has to incur some additional expenditure in the form of selling cost. This cost includes sales promotion expenses, advertisement expenses, salaries of marketing staff, etc. And the last feature of monopolistic competition is that a firm is facing downward sloping demand curve i. e. elastic demand curve.It means one can sell more at lower price and vice versa. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Ayers R. and Collinge R. , Microeconomics, Pearson, 2003 2. J. Gans, S. King, N. Gregory Mankiw, Principles of Economics, Thomson Learning, 2003 3. Hirschey, M, Managerial Economics Rev. Ed, Dryden, 2000 4. http//www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/390037/monopolistic-competition 5. http//www. investopedia. com/terms/m/monopolisticmarket. asp 6. http//kalyan-city. blogspot. com/2010/11/monopolistic-competition-meaning. html

Sunday, May 26, 2019

The Social Networking Effect on Teenagers

The brotherly Networking Effect on Teen advancers The social networks are to community today what the TV was to people 20-30 something years ago. Human dependence on figurers and the internet has come to the point that if the social networks ceased to work, relations and social connections would falter more than so in teens than in adults. Teenagers have taken to social networking to do their everyday tasks and activities like interacting with friends and family, socializing and entertainment. While this sounds convenient, it really hinders a teens development.Teenagers may get hooked to these websites due to their galore(postnominal) features and run short social kayoedcasts because they form a social action on these websites. As a result, one-on-one interaction with friends, family and even enemies are slowly phased out. To top all that off, social networking websites are haven for cyber bullies and stalkers and a playground for predators who are looking for their next rat e using bullshit profiles. Even after all these effects, critics still maintain that social networking websites are good for todays youth because it helps them gain computer skills and improve their literacy skills.The government needs to form a body to at least monitor the use of these social networks because these websites have the potential of leaving teenagers socially and physically inactive and expose them to other lurking dangers. People who support the use of social networking websites argue that these websites are actually beneficial for teenagers. These people assert that by spending so many hours on social networks, teenagers are gaining newer and better computer skills. That, they say, is helping them work their way towards getting a job a with a computer company.Even if working at a computer company is non what teens want, learning computer skills is still helpful because computers and internet are hither to stay. Lauren Gerber, a journalist for PC1news. com wrote The thing that parents dont know is that even simply going on Facebook is teaching your teenager how to use the internet to their profit (11). Gerber also wrote that teenagers, by socializing on various online sites, are learning how to get along with other people (11).Teenagers, by communicating with a broad(a) variety of people, may be getting better at socializing with people of every race, religion and color. Marcia Clemmitt wrote a journal article called Social Networking. In this article she quoted Sonia Larsen, editor of website Global Voices, saying that with online social networking its more likely you go out retain some degree of connection or association with a broader cross-sector of the population, leading to more harmonious human relations nationally and internationally (752).Another reason why people support the use of these websites by teenagers is that, by continuously having to read and being exposed to words, teenagers will develop good literacy skills. As teena gers get more comfortable with social networks they spend lesser and lesser time with the people around them, slowly detaching themselves from reality. Because teenagers are easily attracted to flashy objects, they get easily hooked to these websites for all the features they have to offer. Who wouldnt want something in which people can view other peoples profiles without them ever finding out about itThis is exactly the reason why Facebook appeals to so many people its privacy. Teenagers may take a moment to check whats going on, and the moment turns into an hour and the hour to several hours. The cold hard verity is that teenagers are attracted to these websites like two magnets and this causes inactivity in teens. If they get addicted to these websites they will opt to stay on the computer hours at a time, phasing out any mannikin of physical activity what so ever. Teens will slowly detach themselves from the real life and live their life in the virtual world.In her article, d isguised Up In the Web The Dangers of Teen Internet Addiction, Sue Scheff, who is an author and parent advocate, wrote The Internet has made it all too easy for teens to recoil from the pressures of adolescence and take a breather indoorsThe lure of the web can often make it seem as though social networks and online gaming are acceptable substitutes for real life (16). As a result of spending so very little time with actual people, teenagers lack decent social skills. Social networking websites have pass a safe haven for cyber bullies and stalkers due to the privacy these sites offer.Cyber-bullying, which one of the fastest development problems on the internet, is the use of the Internet, cell phones and other digital technology to harass, intimidate, threaten, fling and defame. Thomas Billitteri, in his article Cyberbullying, reports about a statistic from the Pew Research Center Roughly a third of teens who use the internet said theyd received threatening messages, had e-mail o r text messages forwarded without consent, had an embarrassing picture posted without consent, had rumors about them spread online, or experienced some other kind of online harassment. 387) Teenagers are very susceptible to this type of bullying as it inflicts deep and painful wounds on them, more mental than physical. Teenagers and children may intentionally or circumstantially bully their peers which may cause irreparable damage as teens are susceptible to being victimized throughout the day, week, month or year. In a study published by Sameer Hinduja and Justin Patchin of the Cyberbullying Reasearch Center, it showed that 20 percent of 10-18 year olds were cyberbullied in their lifetime and 7. percent were cyberbullied in the past 30 days (Hinduja and Patchin). Another growing problem on these websites is stalking. Teenagers may get obsessed with an interest of theirs and the simple online profile viewing may become a case of stalking, at starting online then in real life. Cybe r stalking has become a serious problem today as the privacy of social networking websites allows stalkers to view anyones photos and videos without that soulfulness ever finding out.It has serious psychological effects as it is more stressful and traumatizing due to its potential of being there 24/7, as Charlene Laino, a reporter for WebMD, quotes Elizabeth Carll, a psychologist, in her article If youre harassed in school or at work, you can come foundation to a safe environmentIf youre cyberstalked, it can be all the time, no matter where you are. Sexual predators use social networking websites to look for unsuspecting children and teenagers to try and lure them into their traps. Predators use fake profiles to get in contact with children and teenagers and then try to tempt them into meeting them.Teenagers who are unaware may actually befriend these people and when called to meet they will go to them, unsuspecting of the trap they are walking into. Even though social networking websites have an age restriction of 13 or older connector the network, it is very easy for even a nine year old to join without so much as a hiccup. Because of this, social networking websites have become a playground for sexual predators. According to Predator Statistics, in the United States alone, there are over 644,865 registered sex offendersand over 100,000 are garbled in the system.This makes allowing teenagers access to social networking websites, or even the internet, a nightmare for parents. Today, every teens first impulse when left at home is to go online onto a social network and check what has been going on and in the midst if they are contacted by someone pretending to be their age they are bound to allow them access to their profiles. Even with all the bad things that could happen to teens using social networking websites people still support its use for them not considering the fact that these websites might render teenagers socially and physically inactive and e xpose them to other lurking dangers.No matter how much they try, parents are eventually going to end up with at least one if not all of these problems. For example, parents working full time might have to deal with a child who is so lost in the online social networking that he or she has no social life outside of it. Today, with the ever expanding technologies, people who wish to do harm will hypothesize of newer and worse ways to penetrate and destroy families which is why parents need to raise their voice over this sensitive issue. The biggest issue remains that there is still no form of entity or authority that can monitor, if not control, the use of these social websites.The government should form a body that not only monitors the use of these websites however also keeps out people who use it as a means to harm other people. These entities should also take measures so that children and teenagers under a qualify age are not allowed to access these websites what so ever. Work C ited Billitteri, Thomas J. Cyberbullying. CQ Researcher 2 May 2008 385-408. Web. 21 Aug. 2011. Clemmitt, Marcia. Social Networking. CQ Researcher 17 Sept. 2010 749-72. Web. 21 Aug. 2011. Gerber, Lauren. New Discovery Teenagers Are Actually Benefiting From Spending Too Much Time Online. Are Social Networking Sites Harmful?Eds. Stefan Kiesbye. Farmington Hills Greenhaven press, 2011. 10-12. Print. Hinduja, Sameer, and Justin Patchin. Cyberbullying Victimization. Rep. Cyberbullying Research Center, 2010. Web. 30 Aug. 2011. Laino, Charlene. Cyberstalking Worse Than in-person Harassment? WebMD. WebMD Health News, 8 Aug. 2011. Web. 24 Aug. 2011 Predator Statistics. Internetsafety101. org. Enough Is Enough, n. d. Web. 24 Aug. 2011. Scheff, Sue. Wrapped Up In the Web The Dangers of Teen Internet Addiction. Are Social Networking Sites Harmful? Eds. Stefan Kiesbye. Farmington Hills Greenhaven Press, 2011. 13-18. Print.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Contact (Call) Center Managers?

1. What lessons are there from these two examples for contact (call) center managers? Services are diametric from manufacturing, with the key renovation difference being the interaction of the customer in the delivery process. Service design is no longer considered to be an art form as limpid approaches to better design and management of service dusts are emerging. In a facilities-based service, the customer must go to the service facility.In contrast, in a field-based service, the output and consumption of the service takes place in the customers environment. Internal services refer to services required to support the activities of the larger organization. There is a blurring of manufacturing and service firms since the manufacturer product always has a certain percentage of service content. Services are also seen as the next source of competitive advantage for firms.In services we also consider the amount of customer contact or the physical presence of the customer in the sys tem. Service systems range from those with a high degree of customer contact to those with a low degree of customer contact. Service encounters can be configured in a number of different ways. The service-system design matrix includes six common alternatives. Flowcharting, like in manufacturing process design, is the standard tool for service process design.The flowchart, or service blueprint, emphasizes the importance of design. Poka-yoke systems use to services prevent mistakes from becoming service defects. Approaches to services include the production line approach, the self-service approach, and the personal attention approach. Service guarantees are not only if a marketing tool for services but, from an operations perspective, these guarantees can be used as an improvement incentive and can focus the firms delivery system on things it must do well to satisfy the customer

Friday, May 24, 2019

Notice and Focus: Girl Culture by Lauren Greenfield Essay

Girl Culture photo essay by Lauren Greenfields was shot indoors a department stores dressing room. It is about a picture of a young lady name Sheena, who seems to me, fitting some cloths temporary hookup another girl, amber, about her age belike a close friend is sitting on the floor watching her. The shot was maken candid. It appe atomic number 18d like a shot from a hidden security camera of the store. By the angle of where the picture was taken, I think the camera is located near the mirror where it could take a illuminate shot on the subjects full frontal image.Sheena was almost half naked, wearing only jeans and a sando shirt in which she pulls up to her chest as she holds her breast. It really gave me an impression that Amber might be a very close friend for Sheena allowed her to see her that way probably to nobbles some opinion. By the look at Sheenas face, I could articulate that see is disappointed about something and by the tight hold on her breast, I think she was d iscontented of its size. There are few things about this picture that captures my attention.The way Sheena holds her breast, the presence of Amber inside the rooms and the camera itself. With this photograph, one could tell how the thread of fashions today affects the mindsets of young girls cultures today. Most of our young ladies today, like Sheena, now always dream for a much larger breast. It shows how they are conditions by society that big breast attracts more. Page 2 With the presence of Amber inside the room it reflects how liberated our teens today. They are now less materialistic with their privacy but I think it is just fine, for as long as they really know their friends.The good thing about it is that they know how to solicit suggestions among their peers for no one can really tell how good they look excepts for the peoples that surrounds them. This photo might be reflections of how young girl cultures today but what bothers me is the elbow room this photo had taken. I ts a stolen shot from a dressing room of a public place and if this is true, I found it very alarming. This is a clear violation of privacy of every individual entering that room. Its very abusive on the part of the owner of that establishment. Girl Culture by Lauren Greenfield February 10March 27, 2005 Tisch Gallery

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Explore the presentation of women in Much Ado about Nothing Essay

Explore the presentation of women in Much Ado about goose egg The women in the 1500s were al counsellings expected to do things such as taking care of the family non working outside of their houses and always seen as possessions, not people. As in Shakespeares time they were seen not considerd. Shakespeare used this as a theme in him novel, Much Ado about Nothing, and the character hacek in particular portrayed the natural wo public. The typical woman was modest, convectional, reserved and m any women were pressured to be exactly like her.There are many new(prenominal) ways of which women are presented in this 1599 play about love and the deception of appearances. The play was real popular with the audience and was a comedy. Women who had a high office were usually linked with honour. gun is an example of this as her founder, Leonato, is a successful character and has high status. He is described as a, honourable father, which means that if she was to be, traitorous, to Cla udio then her whole family would go down in status and she Hero would be seen as an unclean creature now worth nothing.Heros overall presentation is a typical woman and is used as a plot device to move the story along, so she is valuable and her value is not recognised. An example of this is when she furthers the plot when she is, unfaithful, to Claudio. Hero is a possession to be passed on from father to husband as the society was patriarchal and the women were predominate by men and were assets to bargain. In the wedding scene Hero hardly says anything in her defence, and what she does say are only in one line blocks, is my superior well that he doth speak so wide? She is not saying that he is wrong, but just asking him to rethink what he is saying. This shows us that she is a typical, modest woman and cannot stand up for herself. When Hero is accused of being unfaithful to Claudio, her father doesnt defend her like a typical father would do today, but he says, do not live Hero , do not ope thine eyes, Leonato is ashamed to be linked with his daughter and basically says that he wants her to die. This is not how women should be treated. They have no voice and people would believe a mans word over a womans.Hero is seen as a, plague right well prevented, which means she is no longer any use to Claudio and is a plague on him. Once women had lost there virginity to a man when they were not married, they were seen as useless and unclean, a woman would not be able to get a husband and would be put in a nunnery or unbroken indoors. Honour is linked to virginity because then the women were not worthless and so that they could be married to someone of high status. Claudio thinks Heros appearance is deceiving him and he ruins her life as she had ruined his, thoughts of harm. He ruins her life because now people think that she is unfaithful, rotten orange, she will be worthless and kept indoors. Another example of Hero as a typical Elizabethan woman is at the party w hen she gets proposed to. Hero is told what to say to her marriage proposal and has no choice in what to say. Beatrice even prompts her on what her actions should be, speak cousin, or if you cannot, stop his mouth with a kiss. Womans sexuality was controlled by men. Hero would be like any other good typical wife in Elizabethan times, she, would do any modest office. She is quiet and chaste and conforms to the norms of the society. Hero is very predictable, again like the typical woman, now going to kiss Claudio, Beatrice prompts her on her actions. In contrast Benedicks and Beatrices relationship has more equivalence and they come across as comfortable with one another as they use, you , and, your, as apposed to, thee, and, thou, as Hero and Claudio use. Beatrice is presented in a very different way to Hero. Beatrice is presented very openly. All of her emotions are shown and she always says what she thinks, the commendation is not in his wit, but in his villainy. This shows us th at Beatrice is a very plotting and witty character who is in control of the situation. She is an fencesitter woman, who was not like how women in Elizabethan times were presented, she was like Queen Elizabeth. Hero and Beatrice are complete opposites. Beatrice doesnt want any man to rule her life, in marriage, so takes an independent look to things. She doesnt want a husband because she wants to remain like she is, I had rather hear my dog bark at a crow than a man swear he loves me. Her strong voice is a strong comparison to Heros silence it makes them seen very opposite and is not the norms of Elizabethan society. Because Beatrice is so independent, she uses her wit to stop her from getting hurt, so I would not he should do me, my Lord, lest I should prove the mother of fools. It shows that Elizabethan women were quite vulnerable. The love that Benedick has for Beatrice is true love, this gives Beatrice the power to manipulate him, and she tells him to, kill Claudio, because she has to rely on a man to carry out what she wants to be done.The women in those times could not carry out a duel with someone else, as it was no, expected, of them to do that and they had to conform to the typical woman, like Hero. Beatrice shows her frustration when she says, O God that I were a man I would eat his heart in the market place, shes saying that if she was a man she would kill Claudio herself so makes Benedick chose if he looses a friend or love. Beatrice shows that she can be a domination person when she cuts Benedicks sentences short, Beat-, then she says, Princes and Counties Overall I think that the women in, Much Ado about Nothing, were pressured into being quiet, chaste and not seen, like Hero. Beatrice is the total opposite and has her own strong-willed, independent mind. Men and women were not treated as equals and men had so much more power and freedom and saw the women as possessions not wives. Hero resembles the stark(a) presentation of what a woman should be like. Beatrice does not because she is not quiet and is not told what to do, she is different, she is stubborn and will do things her own way.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

DataVast Case Study

There are many issues in this case study that all overlap each other through out(a) the move of developing the product for DataVast Inc. , developed by founding Winston Hao. He is the creator and founder of this company but as we all know developing a company isnt as easy as it may seem when you invest time, money and energy for company that begins to face turmoil. The difficulties that Mr. Hao face is trying to re improve and modify original cloud storage product that stored large quantities of digital entropy, The big issue was that even though they were ready to send out there newly modified product was who would be their target.This was just the beginning of many problem in this journey. This company tackled there issues with trying to eliminate uncalled-for products in the market which along the process is considered there biggest issue and making their way to their least problematic issues. DataVast Inc. had a lot to offer in monetary value of memory storage, from digital files form secondary area in order eliminate losing valuable selective information, In order to do so they had to eliminate CD, orthogonal Hard Drive and USB. Particularly because they were unappealing method for businesses to store data because they were too big and could easily be lost and broken.Also, portable external catchy drives that even though they store 160 GB TO 2 TB. Are even more expensive than CD and including that they are easy to lose and damage. In addition, USB flash drives although they are portable and store more than double portable external hard drive came with big risk such as security measures challenge for organizations since they were very small and easily capable of being stolen by unsupervised visitors or employees to take and get away with. DataVast Inc.initially appeared to have an advantage over all these other devices but what appeared to be so was another secondary important problem that need to be dealt with which was what to choose between Publi c slander or Private slander that both had advantages over regular storage methods. The issue with Public Cloud was that if it was taken on it would inhibit the risk of accommodated data security, since all data was kept at the third-party service providers area. Now for Public Cloud it did have an advantage over Public Cloud as the data didnt need to be store with another party.Nonetheless, users still need to buy a physical storage device, which had to be in the premises of their home office. The next issue for Mr. Hao was dealing with integrated back up system that were offered by IT providers such as IBM and Tivoli. This company had offered many areas of individualisation with high performances levels, however they were in high price range and were difficult for smaller companies to pay for that couldnt afford to. Ultimately, the next step was business data storage in China. Bringing this concept to China was hard because companies that were backing data were North American w ho were using out dated data.It was a habitual thing that people were involved with service industries to sell client info a practice that makes it hard for company trust service provider with fuddled sensitive company info. DataVast provided Cloud computing storage products to China. This was new to the Chinese market, and Hao hoped that since working with the largest telecommunication company it provide with some recognition. This however caused Chinese businesses to be resistant to adopt cloud products by 2011 five years into operation DataVast was still suffering a terrible loss.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

A Practitioner’s Guide to Ethical Decision Making

Holly Forester-Miller, Ph. D. Thomas Davis, Ph. D. Copyright 1996, American Counseling connection. A free publication of the American Counseling Association promoting ethical counseling practice in service to the public. Printed and bound copies whitethorn be purchased in quantity for a nominal fee from the Online Resource catalogue or by c everying the ACA Distribution Center at 800. 422. 2648.ACA grants reproduction rights to libraries, researchers and teachers who wish to copy all or part of the contents of this scroll for bookish purposes stick outd that no fee for the use or possession of such copies is charged to the ultimate consumer of the copies. Proper citation to ACA must be given. Introduction Counselors argon lots faced with situations which require sound ethical decision making ability. Determining the appropriate course to take when faced with a difficult ethical predicament can be a challenge.To assist ACA members in meeting this challenge, the ACA Ethics Com mittee has developed A Practitioners Guide to Ethical Decision Making. The intent of this document is to offer professional pleaders a frame give way for sound ethical decision making. The following will address both guiding principles that be globally semiprecious in ethical decision making, and a model that professionals can utilize as they address ethical questions in their work. Moral Principles Kitchener (1984) has identify five chaste principles that are viewed as the cornerstone of our ethical guidelines.Ethical guidelines can not address all situations that a counselor is forced to confront. Reviewing these ethical principles which are at the hindquarters of the guidelines often helps to clarify the issues involved in a given situation. The five principles, autonomy, justice, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and fidelity are each absolute truths in and of themselves. By exploring the dilemma in regards to these principles one may come to a better understanding of the confli cting issues. 1. Autonomy is the principle that addresses the concept of independence.The essence of this principle is allowing an individual the freedom of superior and process. It addresses the responsibility of the counselor to encourage clients, when appropriate, to make their own decisions and to act on their own values. There are two important considerations in encouraging clients to be autonomous. First, helping the client to understand how their decisions and their values may or may not be received within the context of the society in which they live, and how they may impinge on the rights of others.The second consideration is cerebrate to the clients ability to make sound and rational decisions. Persons not capable of making competent choices, such as children, and some individuals with mental handicaps, should not be allowed to act on decisions that could harm themselves or others. 2. Nonmaleficence is the concept of not causing harm to others. Often explained as highe r up all do no harm, this principle is considered by some to be the most critical of all the principles, nevertheless though theoretically they are all of equal weight (Kitchener, 1984 Rosenbaum, 1982 Stadler, 1986).This principle reflects both the idea of not inflicting intentional harm, and not engaging in exploits that risk harming others (Forester-Miller & Rubenstein, 1992). 3. Beneficence reflects the counselors responsibility to get to the welfare of the client. Simply stated it means to do devout, to be proactive and also to prevent harm when possible (Forester-Miller & Rubenstein, 1992). 4. Justice does not mean treating all individuals the same.Kitchener (1984) points out that the formal meaning of justice is treating equals equally and unequals unequally but in proportion to their relevant differences (p. 49). If an individual is to be treated differently, the counselor charterfully to be able to offer a rationale that explains the necessity and appropriateness of tr eating this individual differently. 5. Fidelity involves the notions of loyalty, faithfulness, and honoring commitments. Clients must be able to trust the counselor and founder faith in the therapeutic relationship if growth is to occur.Therefore, the counselor must take care not to threaten the therapeutic relationship nor to let obligations unfulfilled. When exploring an ethical dilemma, you need to examine the situation and see how each of the above principles may relate to that particular case. At times this alone will clarify the issues enough that the means for resolving the dilemma will become obvious to you. In more complicated cases it is helpful to be able to work with the steps of an ethical decision making model, and to assess which of these moral principles may be in conflict.Ethical Decision Making Model We have incorporated the work of Van Hoose and Paradise (1979), Kitchener (1984), Stadler (1986), Haas and Malouf (1989), Forester-Miller and Rubenstein (1992), and Sileo and Kopala (1993) into a practical, sequential, seven step, ethical decision making model. A description and discussion of the steps follows. 1. Identify the Problem. Gather as much(prenominal) information as you can that will illuminate the situation. In doing so, it is important to be as specific and objective as possible. Writing ideas on theme may help you gain clarity.Outline the facts, separating out innuendos, assumptions, hypotheses, or suspicions. There are some(prenominal) questions you can ask yourself Is it an ethical, legal, professional, or clinical problem? Is it a compounding of more than one of these? If a legal question exists, seek legal advice. Other questions that it may be useful to ask yourself are Is the issue cerebrate to me and what I am or am not doing? Is it related to a client and/or the clients significant others and what they are or are not doing? Is it related to the institution or agency and their policies and procedures?If the problem ca n be resolved by implementing a policy of an institution or agency, you can look to the agencys guidelines. It is good to remember that dilemmas you face are often complex, so a useful guideline is to examine the problem from several perspectives and avoid searching for a simple solution. 2. Apply the ACA Code of Ethics. After you have clarified the problem, refer to the Code of Ethics (ACA, 2005) to see if the issue is addressed there. If there is an applicable standard or several standards and they are specific and clear, following the course of exertion indicated should lead to a resolution of the problem.To be able to apply the ethical standards, it is essential that you have read them carefully and that you understand their implications. If the problem is more complex and a resolution does not seem apparent, then you in all likelihood have a legitimate ethical dilemma and need to proceed with further steps in the ethical decision making process. 3. Determine the nature and dimensions of the dilemma. There are several avenues to follow in order to ensure that you have examined the problem in all its various dimensions. Consider the moral principles of autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and fidelity. Decide which principles apply to the specific situation, and come across which principle takes priority for you in this case. In theory, each principle is of equal value, which means that it is your challenge to determine the priorities when two or more of them are in conflict. o Review the relevant professional literature to ensure that you are using the most current professional thinking in reaching a decision. o chit-chat with experienced professional colleagues and/or supervisors.As they review with you the information you have gathered, they may see other issues that are relevant or provide a perspective you have not considered. They may also be able to identify aspects of the dilemma that you are not viewing objectively. o Consult your state or national professional associations to see if they can provide help with the dilemma. 4. Generate dominance courses of action. Brainstorm as many possible courses of action as possible. Be creative and consider all options. If possible, enlist the assistance of at least one colleague to help you generate options. . Consider the dominance consequences of all options and determine a course of action. Considering the information you have gathered and the priorities you have set, evaluate each option and assess the potential consequences for all the parties involved. chew over the implications of each course of action for the client, for others who will be force outed, and for yourself as a counselor.Eliminate the options that clearly do not give the desired results or cause even more problematic consequences. Review the remaining options to determine which option or ombination of options best fits the situation and addresses the priorities you have identified. 6. Evaluate t he selected course of action. Review the selected course of action to see if it presents any new ethical considerations. Stadler (1986) suggests applying three simple tests to the selected course of action to ensure that it is appropriate. In applying the test of justice, assess your own sense of lividness by determining whether you would treat others the same in this situation. For the test of publicity, ask yourself whether you would want your behavior reported in the press.The test of universality asks you to assess whether you could urge on the same course of action to another counselor in the same situation. If the course of action you have selected seems to present new ethical issues, then youll need to go back to the beginning and reevaluate each step of the process. Perhaps you have chosen the wrong option or you might have identified the problem incorrectly. If you can answer in the affirmative to each of the questions suggested by Stadler (thus passing the tests of justi ce, publicity, and universality) and you are satisfied that ou have selected an appropriate course of action, then you are ready to move on to implementation. 7. Implement the course of action. Taking the appropriate action in an ethical dilemma is often difficult. The final step involves beef up your ego to allow you to carry out your plan. After implementing your course of action, it is good practice to follow up on the situation to assess whether your actions had the anticipated effect and consequences. The Ethical Decision Making Model at a Glance 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Identify the problem. Apply the ACA Code of Ethics.Determine the nature and dimensions of the dilemma. Generate potential courses of action. Consider the potential consequences of all options, choose a course of action. Evaluate the selected course of action. Implement the course of action. It is important to realize that different professionals may implement different courses of action in the same situation. Ther e is rarely one right answer to a complex ethical dilemma. However, if you follow a systematic model, you can be assured that you will be able to give a professional explanation for the course of action you chose.Van Hoose and Paradise (1979) suggest that a counselor is probably acting in an ethically responsible way concerning a client if (1) he or she has maintained personal and professional honesty, coupled with (2) the best interests of the client, (3) without antagonism or personal gain, and (4) can justify his or her actions as the best judgment of what should be done based upon the current state of the profession (p. 58). following this model will help to ensure that all four of these conditions have been met.

Monday, May 20, 2019

India’s Role in the Climate Change Summit Essay

The worlds nation today adopted a package dubbed the cancun Agreements buildings blocks for a future legal conformity to address climate change amid c at oncerns that commitments to avert acceptable level of global warming remain missing. Negotiators from 194 countries hold on a set of decision that the un climate secretariat said would set all governments more(prenominal) firmly on the path towards the low expellings future and provide support to developing countries on their work on on climate change. India played a key role at the climate change bloom , proposing a new mechanism to allow international scrutiny of all countries including India s action to crub emission of greenhouse gases.The invironment minister Jairam Ramesh also signalled that India would eventually consider licitly binding crubs on emission, a cracking from its long standing position. Some environmental grouos live criticised these moves by India. But climate change analysts watch said Indias proposal fo r serutiny of the climate climate change exchange actions reflect an acceptance of the chief(prenominal) of transp arncy. And (Rmeshs) assertions on legaklly binding actions is an indicator that India is willing to shift from the position of doing nothing to joining the global union in fiting climate change ,an analyst in Cancun said.This does not mean India will accept legally bending cuts next year, he said . The Cancun documents of ficially recognise emissions curbs targets set by change and developing countries and once every year by the developing countries. But the target of cutting global emissions by 50 % by the year 2050- part of the draft circulated yesterday has been replaced by text calling for subsantial reductions in blobal emissions by 2050 .The Cancun decision pledge US$30 one million million million in fast start finance from the industrialised countries to support climate action in developing countries. The goal is to raise this to US$ 100 billion by 2020. Thew agreements alsorecognise the need of countries to work towards the keeping the rise in the aversge global temperature downstairs 2 degree c. Cancun has done its job , said chistiana Figueres, head of the UN climate change secretariat later the agreement was adopted today. lt is not what is required but it is the essential foundation on which to build great collective ambition Figueres said. But several environmental group including Indias centre for science and Environment have pointed out thst the emission reduction pledge made by all countries so far are way below the whst is required to keep the rise in the average temperature.